After adjustment for confounders, the estimates did not change substantially, except for leptin for which the risk associated with overweight increased to 11.09 (95% CI: 4.05-30.35).
Excess body weight leads to a variety of metabolic changes and increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of risk markers for CVD among Brazilian adolescents of normal weight and with excess body weight. The markers included blood pressure, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, fibrinogen, fasting insulin and glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides. We calculated odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders such as age, sex, physical activity, and socioeconomic background. Compared with normal weight subjects, overweight/obese adolescents were more likely to have higher systolic blood pressure (OR = 3.49, p < 0.001), fasting insulin (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), HOMA-IR (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), leptin (OR = 5.55, p < 0.001), and LDL-c (OR = 5.50, p < 0.001) and lower serum HDL-c concentrations (OR = 2.76, p = 0.004). After adjustment for confounders, the estimates did not change substantially, except for leptin for which the risk associated with overweight increased to 11.09 (95% CI: 4.05-30.35). In conclusion, excess body weight in adolescents exhibits strong associations with several markers that are established as causes of CVD in adults. This observation stresses the importance of primary prevention and of maintaining a healthy body weight throughout adolescence to reduce the global burden of CVD.
Mastroeni SS1,2, Mastroeni MF2,3, Gonçalves MC4, Debortoli G4, da Silva NN5, Bernal RT5, Adamovski M6, Veugelers PJ2, Rondó PH7.
Association between serum leptin concentrations and insulin resistance: a population-based study from China
Zuo H1, Shi Z, Yuan B, Dai Y, Wu G, Hussain A.
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, China
PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e54615. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054615. Epub 2013 Jan 22.
Serum leptin levels and anthropometric correlates in Ache Amerindians of eastern Paraguay
Reproductive Ecology Laboratory, Department of Anthropology, Yale University
Am J Phys Anthropol. 2001 Aug;115(4):297-303.
Ethnic variation in adiponectin and leptin levels and their association with adiposity and insulin resistance
Mente A, Razak F, Blankenberg S, Vuksan V et al
Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
Diabetes Care. 2010 Jul;33(7):1629-34. doi: 10.2337/dc09-1392. Epub 2010 Apr 22.
Impact of sleep debt on physiological rhythms
Spiegel K1, Leproult R, Van Cauter E.
Centre d’Etude des Rythmes Biologiques, Laboratoire de Physiologie, Université Libre de Bruxelles
Rev Neurol (Paris). 2003 Nov;159(11 Suppl):6S11-20.
Fish-rich diet, leptin, and body mass
Winnicki M1, Somers VK, Accurso V, Phillips BG, Puato M, Palatini P, Pauletto P.
University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
Circulation. 2002 Jul 16;106(3):289-91.