Plant-rich mixed meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles have a dramatic impact on incretin, peptide YY and satiety response, but show little effect on glucose and insulin homeostasis: an acute-effects randomised study.
Consumption of meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles resulted in significant increases in incretin and anorectic gut hormones and increased perceived satiety. Surprisingly, this was independent of the energy or protein content of the meal and therefore suggests potential benefits for reduced risk of obesity.
There is evidence for health benefits from ‘Palaeolithic’ diets; however, there are a few data on the acute effects of rationally designed Palaeolithic-type meals. In the present study, we used Palaeolithic diet principles to construct meals comprising readily available ingredients: fish and a variety of plants, selected to be rich in fibre and phyto-nutrients. We investigated the acute effects of two Palaeolithic-type meals (PAL 1 and PAL 2) and a reference meal based on WHO guidelines (REF), on blood glucose control, gut hormone responses and appetite regulation. Using a randomised cross-over trial design, healthy subjects were given three meals on separate occasions. PAL2 and REF were matched for energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates; PAL1 contained more protein and energy. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations were measured over a period of 180 min. Satiation was assessed using electronic visual analogue scale (EVAS) scores. GLP-1 and PYY concentrations were significantly increased across 180 min for both PAL1 (P= 0·001 and P< 0·001) and PAL2 (P= 0·011 and P= 0·003) compared with the REF. Concomitant EVAS scores showed increased satiety. By contrast, GIP concentration was significantly suppressed. Positive incremental AUC over 120 min for glucose and insulin did not differ between the meals.
Br J Nutr. 2015 Feb 28;113(4):574-84. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514004012. Epub 2015 Feb 9.
Bligh HF1, Godsland IF2, Frost G3, Hunter KJ1, Murray P1, MacAulay K1, Hyliands D1, Talbot DC1, Casey J1, Mulder TP4, Berry MJ1.
1Unilever R&D, Colworth Science Park, Sharnbrook,BedfordshireMK44 1LQ,UK.
2Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Medicine Group, Division of Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place,LondonW2 1PG,UK.
3Nutrition and Dietetic Research Group, Division of Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London,DuCane Road,LondonW12 ONN,UK.
4Unilever R&D, Clinicals,Olivier van Noortlaan 121,Vlaardingen,The Netherlands.