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  • ‘ditch the dairy’ references

    Branched Chain Amino Acids Are Associated with Insulin Resistance

    Authors and Abstract

    Red meat, dairy, and insulin sensitivity: a randomized crossover intervention study

    Authors and Abstract

    Dairy consumption and insulin resistance: the role of body fat, physical activity, and energy intake.

    Authors and extract from Abstract

    Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies

    Authors and extract from Abstract

    Milk and mortality
    Genetic studies could help us interpret a biologically plausible but preliminary association
    C Mary Schooling
    City University of New York School of Public Health and Hunter College, New York, NY 10035, USA
    BMJ 2014;349:g6205 doi: 10.1136/bmj.g6205 (Published 27 October 2014)

    High intakes of milk, but not meat, increase s-insulin and insulin resistance in 8-year-old boys
    Conclusion:A short-term high milk protein intake increased insulin secretion and resistance – fasting insulin levels doubled after 7 days in the milk protein group, whereas there was no change in the levels of insulin in the meat protein group.

    Hoppe C, Mølgaard C, Vaag A, Barkholt V, Michaelsen KF.
    The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Denmark

    Case-control study of risk factors for hip fractures in the elderly
    Conclusion:Consumption of dairy products, particularly at age 20 years, was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture in old age. Some of the results of this study were unanticipated and may be due to chance or bias. If confirmed by other studies, these results would challenge some of the current approaches to hip fracture prevention.

    Cumming RG, Klineberg RJ.
    Department of Public Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Mar 1;139(5):493-503.

    Milk, dietary calcium, and bone fractures in women: a 12-year prospective study
    Conclusion:This study from Harvard on 77,761 women looked into whether higher intakes of milk and other calcium-rich foods during adult years reduced the risk of osteoporotic fractures later in life – their data showed that a higher consumption of milk or other food sources of calcium by adult women did not protect against future hip or forearm fractures.

    Feskanich D, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA.
    Am J Public Health. 1997 Jun;87(6):992-7.

    Calcium, vitamin D, milk consumption, and hip fractures: a prospective study among postmenopausal women
    Conclusion:This 18-year analysis of the dietary and nutritional supplement habits of 72,337 post menopausal women showed that neither milk nor a high-calcium diet reduced the risk of osteoporotic hip fractures, whereas an adequate intake of vitamin D was associated with a lower risk of fractures.

    Feskanich D, Willett WC, Colditz GA.
    Harvard Medical School
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb;77(2):504-11.

    Circulating branched-chain amino acid concentrations are associated with obesity and future insulin resistance in children and adolescents
    Elevations in the concentrations of circulating BCAAs are significantly associated with obesity in children and adolescents, and may independently predict future insulin resistance.

    McCormack SE, Shaham O, McCarthy MA, Deik AA, Wang TJ, Gerszten RE, Clish CB, Mootha VK, Grinspoon SK, Fleischman A.
    Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School

    Skim milk, whey, and casein increase body weight and whey and casein increase the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents
    In adults, dietary protein seems to induce weight loss and dairy proteins may be insulinotropic. However, the effect of milk proteins in adolescents is unclear.

    Conclusion:Our data suggest that high intakes of skim milk, whey, and casein increase BAZs (BMI-for-age Z-scores) in overweight adolescents and that whey and casein increase insulin secretion. Whether the effect on body weight is primary or secondary to the increased insulin secretion remains to be elucidated.

    Arnberg K, Mølgaard C, Michaelsen KF, Jensen SM, Trolle E, Larnkjær A.

    Should dairy be recommended as part of a healthy vegetarian diet? Counterpoint.
    Conclusion:Osteoporotic bone fracture rates are highest in countries that consume the most dairy, calcium, and animal protein. Most studies of fracture risk provide little or no evidence that milk or other dairy products benefit bone. Accumulating evidence shows that consuming milk or dairy products may contribute to the risk of prostate and ovarian cancers, autoimmune diseases, and some childhood ailments. Bones are better served by attending to calcium balance and focusing efforts on increasing fruit and vegetable intakes, limiting animal protein, exercising regularly, getting adequate sunshine or supplemental vitamin D, and getting approximately 500 mg Ca/d from plant sources.

    Lanou AJ.
    University of North Carolina

    Metabolic effects of milk protein intake strongly depend on pre-existing metabolic and exercise status
    Conclusion:Milk protein intake has recently been suggested to improve metabolic health. This Perspective provides evidence that metabolic effects of milk protein intake have to be regarded in the context of the individual’s pre-existing metabolic and exercise status. Milk proteins provide abundant branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and glutamine. Plasma BCAAs and glutamine are increased in obesity and insulin resistance, but decrease after gastric bypass surgery resulting in weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity. Milk protein consumption results in postprandial hyperinsulinemia in obese subjects, increases body weight of overweight adolescents and may thus deteriorate pre-existing metabolic disturbances of obese, insulin resistant individuals.

    Melnik BC, Schmitz G, John S, Carrera-Bastos P, Lindeberg S, Cordain L.

    How sound is the science behind the dietary recommendations for
    Connie M Weaver
    Am J Clin Nutr May 2014 99: 1217S-1222S; First published online March 19, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.073007

    Posted in References.

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