Yvonne Junker, Sebastian Zeissig, Seong-Jun Kim,Donatella Barisani, Herbert Wieser, Daniel A. Leffler, Victor Zevallos, Towia A. Libermann, Simon Dillon, Tobias L. Freitag, Ciaran P. Kelly, and Detlef Schuppan
J Exp Med. 2012 Dec 17; 209 (13): 2395–2408.
In this study, we show that members of the nongluten α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor (ATI) family contained in wheat and related cereals are strong inducers of innate immune responses in human and murine macrophages, monocytes, and DCs. ATI family members activate the TLR4–MD2–CD14 complex and elicit strong innate immune effects not only in vitro but also in vivo after oral or systemic challenge. Our findings have broad implications not only for celiac disease but also for other intestinal inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.
Food-derived opioid peptides inhibit cysteine uptake with redox and epigenetic consequences
Malav S. Trivedia, Jayni S. Shaha, Sara Al-Mughairya, Nathaniel W. Hodgsona, Benjamin Simmsa, Geert A. Trooskensb, Wim Van Criekingeb, Richard C. Detha, ,
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, USA
Department of Mathematical Modelling, Statistics and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Belgium
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Volume 25, Issue 10, October 2014, Pages 1011–1018
Epigenetic programming, including CpG methylation and histone modifications, occurring during early postnatal development can influence the risk of disease in later life, and such programming may be modulated by nutritional factors such as milk and wheat, especially during the transition from a solely milk-based diet to one that includes other forms of nutrition.
The hydrolytic digestion of casein (a major milk protein) and gliadin (a wheat-derived protein) releases peptides with opioid activity, and in the present study, we demonstrate that these food-derived proline-rich opioid peptides modulate cysteine uptake in cultured human neuronal and gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cells via activation of opioid receptors.
Restricted antioxidant capacity, caused by wheat- and milk-derived opioid peptides, may predispose susceptible individuals to inflammation and systemic oxidation, partly explaining the benefits of gluten-free or casein-free diets.
Digested wheat gluten inhibits binding between leptin and its receptor